Ulmus glabra (Wych Elm)
Other Names: Scots Elm
Description: Smooth, grey bark with asymmetrial, oval leaves which are toothed around the edges. They also have very short stalk and produce winged fruit.
Uses: Decorative turning, boat parts, wheel hubs, wooden water pipes, floorboards and furniture.
Conservation Value: Many birds eat the seeds, and the leaves provide a food source for the catepillars of many moths. The white-letter hairstreak butterfly loves this tree, but the species has declined due to Dutch Elm disease.
Preferred Locations: hill/rocky woodlands, beside streams/ditches, and found North and West, including parts of Scotland.
Size: Height of 30m
Time to reach full height: 60 years.
Lifespan: Up to 400 years
Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn)
Other Names: May, Maythorn, Whitethorn
Description: Decidious plants with toothed/lobed leaves. The white/pink flowers blossom in May, and after this period of time, bright red berries come in, which is a great food source for birds.
Uses: Turnery and engraving to make cabinets and veneers, boxes, boat parts and tool handles. It also make great firewood and charcool as it can burn at high temperatures. The young leaves and flowers are all edible, making use for salads. Haws are used to make jellies, wines and ketchups.
Conservation Value: Can support more than 300 insects, and is foodplant for caterpillars of moths. Dormice love eating the flowers, which also provides nectar and pollen for bees and other pollinating insects. The haws of the tree have lots of antioxidants and are eaten by migrating birds (e.g. redwings and thrushes) and small mammals. Birds love the dense, thorny foliage as it's a great nesting shelter for birds.
Preferred Locations: hedgerows, scrub and woodland. It will grow in most soils, but the flowers and berries are best in full sunshine.
Size: Can reach a height of up to 15m
Time to reach full height: 20-30 years
Lifespan: Up to 400 years, however 250 may be more typical on sites.